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by Steven Wayne Pattison, ©2011

Black's Law Dictionary was first published in 1891. The Ninth Edition was released in 2009.

(Oct. 31, 2011) — The following information is a result of word searches of the bolded words or terms from the Black’s Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004).  Before we get to the dictionary, there must be an understanding that what we have in this dictionary is a long-time scheme to defraud the American people.

The meanings of the words that are used in law are important, and hopefully you will be able to prove to yourself where our problem with the Federal Government stems with a little help from the following research. The following is directed at men and women who inhabit within one of the fifty current states of the Union known as the ‘united States of America’ which is taken directly from the ‘The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America’ dated ‘IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776.  This document is the key for our future Freedom. This document has been referred to as the ‘Declaration of Independence’ and “signed by the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies.”

Their ‘intentions’ were to make it known to the world the acts of the King that were unjust and unlawful, which is not much different from what is going on today. Because there are so many of us who still do not fully understand what is going on with our once-great country, the following presentation for your education of the words used to ‘inslave’ us has been prepared. The current master tells us that the word ‘inslave’ is a misspelled word used to prove a point that someday you may see it spelled this way if enough of us continue to use this spelling. That is how words acquire different meanings over time. Someone changes the meaning and over time it is accepted, but the only People who can change any meaning of words used to run this once-great country is the Congress of the united States of America, meaning the government located in DC and sometimes referred to as the United States. the United States Supreme Court has declared that there are three different meanings for the term ‘United States’ which was caused by the Congress not simply standing with words that had already been used and the meanings known by all at that time. The ‘united States of America’ government should have been used many times and it was not, so it left the door open for the United States Supreme Court to declare that it had three meanings which was a start of the System being created. Black’s Law Dictionary (6th ed. 1990), Page 1523, states:

United States. This term has several meanings.

Black’s Law Dictionary (6th ed. 1990), does not define the term, ‘United States of America’.

The term, ‘United States’ is not defined in the Black’s Law Dictionary (7th ed. 1999), but on page 1534, ‘United States of America’ is defined as:

A federal republic formed after the War of Independence and made up of 48 conterminous states, plus the state of Alaska and the District of Columbia in North America, plus the state of Hawaii in the Pacific.

Black’s Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004), Page 4768:


A federal republic formed after the War of Independence and made up of 48 conterminous states, plus the state of Alaska and the District of Columbia in North America, plus the state of Hawaii in the Pacific. — Abbr. USA. [Cases: United States 1. C.J.S. United States §§ 2–3.]

The last paragraph of the ‘PREFACE’ of Black’s Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition:

A Final Word of Caution

The language of the law is ever-changing as the courts, Congress, state legislatures, and administrative agencies continue to define, redefine and expand legal words and terms.  Furthermore, many legal terms are subject to variations from state to state and again can differ under federal laws. Also, the type of legal issue, dispute or transaction involved can affect a given definition usage.  Accordingly, a legal dictionary should only be used as a “starting point” for definitions.  Additional research should follow for state or federal variations, for further or later court interpretations, and for specific applications.  Helpful sources for supplemental research are “Words and Phrases” and WESTLAW.


St. Paul, Minn.

July, 1990



Changing the meaning of words created confusion so that they had to hire an attorney if they ever had to go to a court of law, resulting in only the People with money being able to buy freedom. The point is simple:  if you know who you are and where you inhabit, using the correct words, even if you have to define them in your document, could restore our one-great country back to all the People.

My point is to inform you that there is no quick solution, just as there was not a quick solution for the above ‘Declaration’ which took many years of wrongs done by the King and his men before it was even written.  Then there was the ensuing war which was fought to give us ‘Free and Independent States,’ a phrase used within the Declaration. These ‘Free and Independent States’ each were created by their first Constitution, written by the duly elected Representatives who were either appointed or elected by the collective ‘State Citizens’ inhabiting within the borders of these states, which is why all the People inhabiting within the borders of these ‘Free and Independent States’ were collectively represented and collective owners of the first governments of each of these ‘Free and Independent States.’ Soon after the war, there were plans to create a ‘System’ to take back these ‘Free and Independent States’ by the banklords. Quotes supporting that belief, the first of which was written before 1812 and the second in 1863, which relate to the War of 1812 and the American Civil War are:

“Give me control of a nation’s money and I care not who makes her laws.” – Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s (1744 -1812), Godfather of the Rothschild Banking Cartel

“The few who understand the system will either be so interested from its profits or so dependent on its favors that there will be no opposition from that class.” — Rothschild Brothers of London, 1863

Knowing these facts presented on this website caused the following webpage to be produced:  A Time Line focusing on Taxes, Money and War showing the events that caused both wars, the desire to control our money.

Ben Franklin wrote, “The inability of Colonists to get power to issue their own money permanently out of the hands of George III and the international bankers was the prime reason for the Revolutionary War.” By Gary Jacobucci – posted here

“There is no question that the sovereign people of this nation have been victimized by a silent economic war through most of the twentieth century. In the last four decades, institutionalized aggression has become increasingly bolder. If the de facto system continues unabated, only a small political and financial privileged class will enjoy prosperity and liberty — not liberty ordinary people seek, but what amounts to license for plunder.” – Institutionalized Tyranny The Character & Color of Authority

First, one must agree to some degree that the banklords are behind what is still going on in our country or in fact, the world. Now you will have to learn that you no longer officially inhabit one of these ‘Free and Independent States.’ Once you prove this fact to yourself, you will need to prove it to everyone you know. You should not act without a group that agrees with you so you have the support to take the next needed step.

Do we inhabit a dependent state or a state that is not complete and self-existent as these terms are defined in Black’s Law Dictionary?

Black’s Law Dictionary (8th ed. 2004), with bold added.

Page 1324:


dependent state. See nonsovereign state under STATE.

From below:

nonsovereign state. A state that is a constituent part of a greater state that includes both it and one or more others, and to whose government it is subject; a state that is not complete and self-existent. • Among other things, a nonsovereign state has no power to engage in foreign relations. — Also termed dependent state. Cf. SOVEREIGN STATE.

Do you inhabit “Among other things, a nonsovereign state has no power to engage in foreign relations”?

If you asked an attorney, he most likely would not know. If you asked your state representative, they most likely would not know, either. Even if you ran into one who knew, he most likely would not tell you, so we have to learn how to find out which of the current state elected and appointed officials know, which will take a document similar to the Declaration above. Even if it were already prepared, no one should use it without this education or it might not work every time, which is our goal. The Colonists didn’t have to write more than one after it was finished, did they?

Some of the following will be used later.

Page 960:


context, n.1. The surrounding text of a word or passage, used to determine the meaning of that word or passage <his remarks were taken out of context>.2. Setting or environment <in the context of foreign relations>. — contextual,adj.

Today you are hearing a lot about sovereignty. What does it mean to you?

Page 4360:


sovereignty (sahv-[<<schwa>>-]rin-tee).1. Supreme dominion, authority, or rule. [Cases: International Law 8. C.J.S. International Law §§ 25–28.]

popular sovereignty. A system of government in which policy choices reflect the preferences of the majority of citizens.

SOVEREIGN. A chief ruler with supreme power; one possessing sovereignty. (q. v.) It is also applied to a king or other magistrate with limited powers.

2. In the United States the sovereignty resides in the body of the people. Vide Rutherf. Inst. 282.

Page 533 of the THIRD EDITION 1848 of volume II – ‘A LAW DICTIONARY ADAPTED TO THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND OF THE SEVERAL STATES OF THE AMERICAN UNION’ by John Bouvier – Internet Source – Revised Sixth Edition where no pages numbers are provided – site page.

All the Lawful Union States should have been created by the ‘body of the people’ collectively through and by their lawfully elected state representatives represents what was instructed via the first Constitution which created each ‘Free and Independent States.’ Each of these first state constitutions should have what is found in the first constitution of Missouri in 1820.  You will need to have a copy of the first constitution which created your ‘Free and Independent State’ that you inhabit – Declaration of Rights: 

That the general, great, and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare,

1. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, the people.

2. That the people of this state have the inherent, sole, and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof, and of altering and abolishing their constitution and form of government, whenever it may be necessary to their safety and happiness.

3. That the people have the right peaceably to assemble for their common good, and to apply to those vested with the powers of government for redress of grievances, by petition or remonstrance; and that their right to bear arms, in defense of themselves and of the state, cannot be questioned.

4. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man can be compelled to erect, support, or attend any place of worship, or to maintain any minister of the gospel, or teacher of religion; that no human authority can control or interfere with the rights of conscience; that no person can ever be hurt, molested, or restrained in his religious profession or sentiments, if he do not disturb others in their religious worship.

5. That no person, on account of his religious opinions, can be rendered ineligible to any office of trust or profit under this state; that no preference can ever be given by law to any sect or mode of worship; and that no religious corporation can ever be established in this state.

6. That all elections shall be free and equal.

7. That courts of justice ought to be open to every person, and certain remedy afforded for every injury to person, property, or character; and that right and justice ought to be administered without sale, denial, or delay; and that no private property ought to be taken or applied to public use without just compensation.

8. That the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

9. That, in all criminal prosecutions, the accused has the right to be heard by himself and his counsel; to demand the nature and cause of accusation; to have compulsory process for witnesses in his favor; to meet the witnesses against him face to face; and, in prosecutions on presentment or indictment, to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage; that the accused cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land.

10. That no person, after having been once acquitted by a jury, can, for the same offence, be again put in jeopardy of life or limb, but if, in any criminal prosecution, the jury be divided in opinion at the end of the term, the court before which the trial shall be had, may, in its discretion, discharge the jury, and commit or bail the accused for trial at the next term of such court.

11. That all persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences, when the proof is evident or the presumption great, and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus cannot be suspended, unless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

12. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

13. That the people ought to be secure in their persons, papers, houses, and effects, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and no warrant to search any place or to seize any person or thing can issue, without describing the place to be searched, or the person or thing to be seized, as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

14. That no person can, for an indictable offence, be proceeded against criminally by information, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger, or, by leave of the court, for oppression or misdemeanor in office.

15. That treason against the state can consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; that no person can be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on his own confession in open court; that no person can be attainted of treason or felony by the general assembly; that no conviction can work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; that the estates of such persons as may destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as in cases of natural death; and when any person shall be killed by casualty there ought to be no forfeiture by reason thereof.

16. That the free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and that every person may freely speak, write, and print, on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty. That, in all prosecutions for libels, the truth thereof may be given in evidence, and the jury may determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court.

17. That no ex-post facto law, nor law impairing the obligation of contracts, or retrospective in its operation, can be passed; nor can the person of a debtor be imprisoned for debt after he shall have surrendered his property for the benefit of his creditors in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

18. That no person who is religiously scrupulous of bearing arms can be compelled to do so, but may be compelled to pay an equivalent for military service in such manner as shall be prescribed by law; and that no priest, preacher of the gospel, or teacher of any religious persuasion or sect, regularly ordained as such, be subject to militia duty, or compelled to bear arms.

19. That all property subject to taxation in this state shall be taxed in proportion to its value.

20. That no title of nobility, hereditary emolument, privilege, or distinction, shall be granted; nor any office created the duration of which shall be longer than the good behavior of the officer appointed to fill the same.

21. That migration from this state cannot be prohibited.

22. That the military is, and, in all cases, and at all times, shall be, in strict subordination to the civil power; that no soldier can, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in such manner as may be prescribed by law; nor can any appropriation for the support of an army be made for a longer period than two years.

The Constitution for the united States of America did not amend any of the above declarations until after the American Civil War started, and this was the reason for the new constitutions which created new states within the lawfully-created states by the lawful representatives of the People inhabiting within the boundaries of the Union State. Please note that the second and newer versions do not define the boundaries, which makes them all incomplete and void.

In the above constitution, “we declare” meant and is spelled out within the constitution to mean all the people found within the borders of Missouri. This webpage, History of the Constitutions for Missouri, explains the first and each of the following constitutions which were written by someone other than the People representing the lawful People from the first constitution and also explained within this website in a Congressional Record. All of them are provided for two reasons.  Some may not open for whatever reason and a couple have additional information.

We still have state sovereignty, but no one knows how to use it because they don’t know the fact that you officially do not inhabit within one of them today. You officially reside in DC and are resident aliens no matter where you sleep or work.

Please note for the record that all states are still sovereign collectively. All the lawful People inhabiting in any of these ‘Free and Independent States’ are collectively sovereigns because they obtained their powers from the lawful People inhabiting in any of these ‘Free and Independent States’ that are sovereign. Some of the sovereign rights were passed onto the government of the ‘united States of America’. Everything else is de facto.

Page 4360 continued:

state sovereignty. See STATE SOVEREIGNTY.

2. The supreme political authority of an independent state. 3. The state itself. “It is well to [distinguish] the senses in which the word Sovereignty is used. In the ordinary popular sense it means Supremacy, the right to demand obedience. Although the idea of actual power is not absent, the prominent idea is that of some sort of title to exercise control. An ordinary layman would call that person (or body of persons) Sovereign in a State who is obeyed because he is acknowledged to stand at the top, whose will must be expected to prevail, who can get his own way, and make others go his, because such is the practice of the country. Etymologically the word of course means merely superiority, and familiar usage applies it in monarchies to the monarch, because he stands first in the State, be his real power great or small.” James Bryce, Studies in History and Jurisprudence 504–05 (1901).

external sovereignty. The power of dealing on a nation’s behalf with other national governments.

internal sovereignty. The power enjoyed by a governmental entity of a sovereign state, including affairs within its own territory and powers related to the exercise of external sovereignty.


sovran. See SOVEREIGN.

Page 4415


state sovereignty. The right of a state to self-government; the supreme authority exercised by each state. [Cases: States 1. C.J.S. States §§ 2, 16.]


states’ rights. Under the Tenth Amendment, rights neither conferred on the federal government nor forbidden to the states. [Cases: States 4.16. C.J.S. States §§ 25–26.]

Page 3391


nullification (n<<schwa>>l-i-fi-kay-sh<<schwa>>n), n.1. The act of making something void; specif., the action of a state in abrogating a federal law, on the basis of state sovereignty. [Cases: States 4.1(1).] 2. The state or condition of being void. See JURY NULLIFICATION.

Page 735:


citizen, n. 1. A person who, by either birth or naturalization, is a member of a political community, owing allegiance to the community and being entitled to enjoy all its civil rights and protections; a member of the civil state, entitled to all its privileges. Cf. RESIDENT; DOMICILIARY. [Cases: Citizens 1. C.J.S. Citizens §§ 7, 12.]

citizen by naturalization. See naturalized citizen.

federal citizen. A citizen of the United States.

natural-born citizen. A person born within the jurisdiction of a national government.

naturalized citizen. A foreign-born person who attains citizenship by law. — Also termed citizen by naturalization. [Cases: Aliens 60–70. C.J.S. Aliens §§ 276–315, 326.]

2. For diversity-jurisdiction purposes, a corporation that was incorporated within a state or has its principal place of business there. 28 USCA § 1332(c)(1). [Cases: Federal Courts 297.]

Page 4405:


state, n. 1. The political system of a body of people who are politically organized; the system of rules by which jurisdiction and authority are exercised over such a body of people <separation of church and state>. — Also termed political society. Cf. NATION. [Cases: International Law 3. C.J.S. International Law §§ 6–8, 13.]

“A STATE is a community of persons living within certain limits of territory, under a permanent organization which aims to secure the prevalence of justice by self-imposed law. The organ of the state by which its relations with other states are managed is the government.” Theodore D. Woolsey, Introduction to the Study of International Law § 36, at 34 (5th ed. 1878).

“A state or political society is an association of human beings established for the attainment of certain ends by certain means. It is the most important of all the various kinds of society in which men unite, being indeed the necessary basis and condition of peace, order, and civilisation. What then is the difference between this and other forms of association? In what does the state differ from such other societies as a church, a university, a joint-stock company, or a trade union? The difference is clearly one of function. The state must be defined by reference to such of its activities and purposes as are essential and characteristic.” John Salmond, Jurisprudence 129 (Glanville L. Williams ed., 10th ed. 1947).

“A state is an institution, that is to say, it is a system of relations which men establish among themselves as a means of securing certain objects, of which the most fundamental is a system of order within which their activities can be carried on. Modern states are territorial; their governments exercise control over persons and things within their frontiers, and today the whole of the habitable world is divided between about seventy of these territorial states. A state should not be confused with the whole community of persons living on its territory; it is only one among a multitude of other institutions, such as churches and corporations, which a community establishes for securing different objects, though obviously it is one of tremendous importance; none the less it is not, except in the ideology of totalitarianism, an all-embracing institution, not something from which, or within which, all other institutions and associations have their being; many institutions, e.g. the Roman Catholic Church, and many associations, e.g. federations of employers and of workers, transcend the boundaries of any single state.” J.L. Brierly, The Law of Nations 118 (5th ed. 1955).

client state. A country that is obliged in some degree to share in the control of its external relations with some foreign power or powers. — Also termed satellite state. Cf. SOVEREIGN STATE.

composite state. A state that comprises an aggregate or group of constituent states.

dependent state. See nonsovereign state.

federal state. A composite state in which the sovereignty of the entire state is divided between the central or federal government and the local governments of the several constituent states; a

union of states in which the control of the external relations of all the member states has been surrendered to a central government so that the only state that exists for international purposes is the one formed by the union. Cf. confederation of states under CONFEDERATION.

imperial state. Archaic. A composite state in which a common or central government possesses in itself the entire sovereignty, so that the constituent states possess no portion of this sovereignty.

nonsovereign state. A state that is a constituent part of a greater state that includes both it and one or more others, and to whose government it is subject; a state that is not complete and self-existent. • Among other things, a nonsovereign state has no power to engage in foreign relations. — Also termed dependent state. Cf. SOVEREIGN STATE.

part-sovereign state. See SOVEREIGN STATE.

police state. A state in which the political, economic, and social life of its citizens is subject to repressive governmental control and arbitrary uses of power by the ruling elite, which uses the police as the instrument of control; a totalitarian state.

receiving state. The country to which a diplomatic agent or consul is sent by the country represented by that agent. Cf. sending state. [Cases: Ambassadors and Consuls 3. C.J.S. Ambassadors and Consuls §§ 15–23.]

satellite state. See client state.

sending state. The country from which a diplomatic agent or consul is sent abroad. Cf. receiving state. [Cases: Ambassadors and Consuls 3. C.J.S. Ambassadors and Consuls §§ 15–23.]

simple state. See unitary state.

social-service state. A state that uses its power to create laws and regulations to provide for the welfare of its citizens.

sovereign state. See SOVEREIGN STATE.

unitary state. A state that is not made up of territorial divisions that are states themselves. — Also termed (archaically) simple state.

2. An institution of self-government within a larger political entity; esp., one of the constituent parts of a nation having a federal government <the 50 states>. [Cases: States 1. C.J.S. States §§ 2, 16.] 3. (often cap.) The people of a state, collectively considered as the party wronged by a criminal deed; esp., the prosecution as the representative of the people <the State rests its case>.

Page 26:

Pullman abstention. A federal court’s decision to abstain so that state courts will have an opportunity to settle an underlying state-law question whose resolution may avert the need to decide a federal constitutional question. Railroad Comm’n v. Pullman Co., 312 U.S. 496, 61 S.Ct. 643 (1941). [Cases: Federal Courts 43, 46.]

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  1. Reply to John Sutherland – You stated in part – “all power usurped by unlawful actions of the federal government are just that – unlawful.”

    And if we had a de jure state government with power of Standing instead of a de facto state government, all the unlawful acts would also be Null and Void.

    Have you had an opportunity to read my series posted here – http://www.thepostemail.com/2011/11/02/a-time-for-choosing-part-1/

    Steven Wayne Pattison

  2. Interesting article, and I think the comparison between Black’s & Bouvier’s Dictionaries was helpful. In my own article on state sovereignty ( http://www.thepostemail.com/2010/08/12/state-sovereignty/ ), I noted the people and the state governments never willingly and consciously surrendered their sovereignty to the federal government, and because of that, all power usurped by unlawful actions of the federal government are just that – unlawful.

    In my paper, I state: “The colonists were working toward the freedom and independence of statehood. Early definitions defined the statehood clearly – A State was a sovereign political entity, not simply a territory of a government.” I would prefer to remain with the earlier definitions of statehood and not restrict the definition of state sovereignty to territorial limits.

    Referring to the Federalist Papers, rather than to legal dictionaries, I attempted to describe the intentions of the Founders, as in this statement:

    The Federalist No. 31 [Alexander Hamilton] – Concerning the General Power of Taxation (continued)

    “The State governments, by their original constitutions, are invested with complete sovereignty.”

    This whole question of sovereignty is crucially important today because it is clear that the world power elite (Bilderbergers, Trilateral Commission, CFR, banksters, etc.) want to completely destroy all aspects of statehood and sovereignty so that we peons will be more easily controlled by them. Much of the recent elitist’s efforts have been described in Alex Jones documentary “End Game” found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-CrNlilZho.

    So, good luck to us all, and may we all work together to assure our state and country’s sovereignty in this mad, mad, world of tyranny and elitist controls.