- Law Cases
by Sharon Rondeau
(Aug. 11, 2013) — George Orwell’s novel, Animal Farm, published in August 1945, depicted an English farm whose animal inhabitants rebelled against their human masters, drove them from the property and learned to carry out the daily operational tasks themselves with the belief that their lives would be greatly improved.
The book is said to be a “powerful satire of the Russian revolution under Stalin.”
Josef Stalin, whose birth name was Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, succeeded Vladimir Lenin as dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which was organized in 1922 after a three-year revolution beginning with the deposing of the last Russian czar, Nicholas II.
Born in 1870 under the name Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, Vladimir Lenin belonged to an educated family which came to be known as “revolutionary” in czarist Russia. As a youth, Lenin read widely, particularly the works of Karl Marx and other socialists and identified himself as a Marxist while still in secondary school. After briefly attending law school, from which he was expelled for radical activity, Lenin became active in a revolutionary movement which exiled him to Siberia for three years.
Lenin was considered “radical” by many Russian socialists, and his speeches were published in the Bolshevik newspaper Pravda. While in Siberia, he wrote ““The Development of Capitalism in Russia,” and, following his release, became editor of a newspaper entitled “Iskra,” or “Spark.”
Following his imprisonment, Lenin worked even more diligently to form ”a streamlined party leadership community” of like-minded Marxists who desired “reform” in Russia beginning with the removal of the imperial regime. As leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), Lenin advocated a new government run by average citizens and “void of class conflict and the international wars it fostered.”
While Lenin was in exile in Switzerland in 1917, the Russian imperial government was toppled in what became known as the February Revolution. It is reported that Germany assisted Lenin to return safely to Russia at that time with the possible goal of creating more internal chaos. A second revolution took place in October of that year, collapsing the interim government and ushering in the Russian Revolution.
Lenin led the Red Army against the White Army, which opposed the Bolsheviks, in a civil war which devastated the country. To feed his troops, Lenin demanded food from those who grew it. Eventually, Lenin’s forces were victorious, and he became the first leader of the new Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Some argue that Lenin did not intend to become a dictator, and that his Bolshevik Party promoted democracy. However, after becoming head of state, Lenin attempted to quash all opposition to the Bolshevik movement and brought the media under control of the central government. On July 17, 1918, after a faction of the White Army was found to be on a possible mission to free the Romanov family from their house arrest, they were executed in the basement of their prison.
After his health declined from two strokes suffered between 1922 and 1924, Lenin regretted a “party and government that had strayed far from its revolutionary goals,” accentuated by the power consolidated by his successor, Josef Stalin.
In 1922, Lenin appointed Stalin as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party until Lenin’s death in 1924. “Stalin” was a pen name assumed by the revolutionary which meant “steel” in Russian. Between 1922 and Lenin’s death, Stalin purged the party of any opposition, and Lenin became concerned about Stalin’s lust for power.
While his health was declining and he was unable to run the government, Lenin wrote in his last testament that he thought Stalin had become too powerful. Stalin and his supporters managed to obscure Lenin’s will, marginalizing the “old Bolsheviks” by accusing them of disloyalty.
During the same time as Hitler was eliminating his political enemies in Germany, Stalin conducted “The Great Purge” in the Soviet Union, which included murders of Communist Party leaders, individuals considered to be “counter-revolutionaries,” Russian citizens of Polish origin accused of being part of a “Polish Military Organisation,” and average citizens. Stalin suspended the right of trial, using forced confessions and “troikas” consisting of three people acting as judges over an accused.
After they were sent to labor camps, many political prisoners died of “starvation, disease, exposure, and overwork.”
Stalin strengthened his control over the Soviet economy, centralizing industry, farming, and education.
Lenin asserted that “four years to teach the children” would ensure their indoctrination into his belief system. In 1946, Stalin instituted a “Ministry of Education” which carried out censorship, the inclusion of government propaganda and “factually inaccurate” textbooks in the schools. Children were taught to thank “Comrade Stalin” for their “happy, joyful childhoods.”
In 1967, The New York Times reported that Stalin’s 42-year-old daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva, fled Russia to seek asylum in the U.S. in the hope of finding “a freedom of spirit and intellect which she had failed to discover in her native land.” Svetlana grew up in the Kremlin, although her mother committed suicide when she was seven years old. Svetlana was university-educated in English and worked with “Soviet literary intelligentsia.” However, The Times reported that “She found her friendships in the community of Soviet intellectuals who in the post-Stalin years were trying to grapple with the reality of Russian life, the dichotomy between the professed ideals of Communism and the harsh reality of Soviet life and practice.”
In 1998, seven years after the fall of the Soviet Union, The Cato Institute wrote that “The leaders of the Bolshevik party (which changed its name to Communist in 1918) were virtually all revolutionary intellectuals…The Bolshevik leaders viewed themselves as the executors of the Marxist program, as those whom History has called upon to realize the apocalyptic transition to communist society foretold by the founders of their faith.”
In 2009, the Obama regime introduced “Race to the Top,” which promoted a federal educational system touting “change.” Although labeling the new program a set of “state standards,” RTTT rewarded states with stimulus dollars for implementing “reform and innovation in classrooms,” which included agreeing to adopt the “Common Core” curriculum designed by bureaucrats in Washington.
Obama’s education secretary, Arne Duncan, had been in charge of the Chicago school system before he was nominated for his federal position. As of this writing, “nearly 50″ Chicago schools have closed to reduce costs in the midst of a severe economic decline, the rise of gang violence and numerous murders. The University of Chicago Crime Lab notes that “school failure” is a contributor to the violence among school-aged youths.
On Animal Farm, just before the uprising which expelled Farmer Jones, an elderly pig, Major, recounted a dream in which two-legged creatures no longer controlled the four-legged ones, and a new existence of freedom and plenty would be theirs. Major addressed the other animals as “comrades,” all of whom agreed that “the tyranny of human beings” was the sole cause of their suffering. Major assured them, “Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever.”
The animals adopted the song “Beasts of England” to become the song of their impending revolution against Mr. Jones, who owned the farm. Some animals, such as the pigs, learned the words and tune faster than the others.
Major died shortly after sharing his dream with the other animals, but the remaining pigs organized his ideas into “a complete system of thought” to complete the revolution. It was agreed that anything considered “human” was to be outlawed, including treats such as sugar cubes and ribbons for Mollie the horse’s mane. One of the pigs painted the “Seven Commandments” of Animal Farm on a barn wall, which read:
THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal.
As the animals ran the farm and brought in the harvest, the pigs became the most vocal in proposing ideas for governance, with two pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, becoming adept debaters. However, “it was noticed that these two were never in agreement: whatever suggestion either of them made, the other could be counted on to oppose it. Even when it was resolved–a thing no one could object to in itself–to set aside the small paddock behind the orchard as a home of rest for animals who were past work, there was a stormy debate over the correct retiring age for each class of animal.”
During the evenings when the farmwork was done, the pigs taught themselves how to blacksmith and construct with wood. Snowball enthusiastically devised committees in which the other animals could take part and taught them how to read and write, although to varying degrees of success. The pigs later identified themselves as “brainworkers” to justify the extra milk and apples they were consuming. A pig named Squealer told the other animals:
Milk and apples (this has been proved by Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers. The whole management and organisation of this farm depend on us. Day and night we are watching over your welfare. It is for YOUR sake that we drink that milk and eat those apples. Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones would come back! Yes, Jones would come back! Surely, comrades,” cried Squealer almost pleadingly, skipping from side to side and whisking his tail, “surely there is no one among you who wants to see Jones come back?”
The animals were united in their opposition to the thought of Farmer Jones’s return and agreed that the pigs should have the extra foodstuffs.
Farmer Jones and his human counterparts told others that Animal Farm could never survive and spread propaganda about it. Animals from other farms became restless and obstinate to their masters. When Jones and several other men returned one day with the purpose of retaking his farm, the animals attacked them, forcing them off the property. However, Mollie the horse was too frightened by the sound of gunfire and retreated to her stall to hide.
A sheep was killed during the battle for whom “a solemn funeral” was given. Following the battle, the animals created military-style designations to recognize the bravery exhibited during the skirmish.
Following the harvest, Mollie was seen in the company of a neighboring farmer, who reportedly “stroked her nose.” Mollie denied the eyewitness’s accusation and ran away. Several days later, Mollie disappeared but was later seen “between the shafts of a smart dogcart painted red and black, which was standing outside a public-house. A fat red-faced man in check breeches and gaiters, who looked like a publican, was stroking her nose and feeding her with sugar. Her coat was newly clipped and she wore a scarlet ribbon round her forelock.”
Over the winter, the pigs planned the work for the spring planting season, although with some “violent” disagreements between Napoleon and Snowball. Snowball drew up a proposal to build a windmill with the purpose of decreasing the amount of manual labor which would have to be done by the animals; Napoleon opposed the project and contended that increasing the farm’s production of food was more important.
Both Napoleon and Snowball were accomplished public speakers, and the animals were divided about the efficacy of the windmill. Orwell wrote that when Snowball finished his eloquent description of how the windmill would make the animals’ lives easier, “there was no doubt as to which way the vote would go.” However, at that moment, nine dogs who had been secretly raised by Napoleon, away from their mother since they were puppies, raced into the barn, lunged at Snowball, biting his tail, and chased him off the farm permanently.
Napoleon then announced, with the menacing-looking dogs at his side, that a “special committee” of pigs would make all future decisions about the working of the farm and that “there would be no more debates.” A pig named Squealer was tasked with convincing the animals that Snowball had been “no better than a criminal” and disloyal to Animal Farm. Squealer claimed that “iron discipline” was needed to keep Jones from returning. He also claimed that the plans for the windmill had belonged to Napoleon and that it would be erected over a two-year period as a result of Napoleon’s “tactics.”
Napoleon began issuing orders and was accompanied by the fierce dogs wherever he went. Sunday became an optional work day, but animals who chose not to work had their rations cut in half that day.
Napoleon made further unilateral changes to the running of Animal Farm, including engaging in commerce for money and necessary supplies with nearby farms run by humans, with a “broker” hired to act as intermediary between Animal Farm and the other farms. Despite the animals’ resolution never to occupy Jones’s former farmhouse, the pigs took up residence there, with Squealer assuring the other animals that the “resolution” passed preventing anyone from living in the farmhouse had never been passed.
The Seven Commandments were altered to the circumstances. When the windmill was blown down by severe winds in November, Napoleon blamed it on Snowball, who he called “a traitor,” and offered a reward of additional food to any animal who captured him.
As the animals worked harder to rebuild the windmill over the severe winter, Squealer “made excellent speeches on the joy of service and the dignity of labour.”
Just as Lenin demanded some of the crops which the Russian peasants grew, the hens of Animal Farm were told that they must give up their eggs to be traded for food as the animals faced starvation and the outside humans predicted the failure of Animal Farm. When the hens protested, they were starved by Napoleon’s orders.
Whenever anything went wrong at the farm, it was blamed on Snowball, who reportedly made nightly visits to wreak havoc. Squealer told them that Snowball had actually been an agent of Farmer Jones “from the very start” and was planning to wrest the farm away from them.
Any animal expressing doubt about Squealer’s claims or refusing to obey Napoleon’s orders was tortured by his dogs and killed in front of the others. “And so the tale of confessions and executions went on, until there was a pile of corpses lying before Napoleon’s feet and the air was heavy with the smell of blood, which had been unknown there since the expulsion of Jones.”
On May 3, 2013, Factcheck.org reported that members of Congress would not be exempt from the health care bill signed by Obama in March 2010 known as “Obamacare.” Factcheck attempted to assure a questioner that “there is no bill in Congress calling for an exemption from the health care law. In fact, members of Congress and their staffs face additional requirements that most Americans don’t have to meet.”
News sources first asked if Congress was exempt from the provisions of the bill, which “a majority of Americans” oppose. Earlier this month, however, a “deal” was made between Obama and Congress to continue to provide the customary subsidies to congressional staffers toward insurance premiums so that their health care premiums do not rise, as the remainder of Americans’ plans are predicted to do beginning in 2014.
Obama’s health care bill is called the “Affordable Care Act.”
The implementation of Obamacare has caused havoc in the medical and insurance industries, with many medical doctors deciding to retire before the law takes complete effect on January 1. The reduction of benefits to senior citizens known as “death panels,” the existence of which was denied by the regime when the bill was first passed, has led several Democrats to call for the repeal of the Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB) tasked with administering the rationing.
The federal government does not have enough money to run Obamacare, but the U.S. Senate will not repeal it. Obama touts the measure as a means by which “30 million” people can obtain health insurance, but “millions” who were once insured have lost their coverage. Two diametrically-opposed senators agree that Obamacare was designed to “fail” so that the federal government could institute a “single-payer” health care system.
An increasing number of physicians have decided to stop accepting Medicare, which was established in 1964 under President Lyndon B. Johnson to care for the elderly and disabled.
After the public slaughter of the animals, Napoleon ordered that the singing of “Beasts of England” was abolished because the “better society” yearned for by the animals prior to their rebellion “has now been established.”
To be continued…
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